Academic articles and reports
A Bibliometric Analysis of Research at the Nexus of Climate Change, Human Mobility, and Human Rights: https://rwi.lu.se/publications/a-bibliometric-analysis-of-research-at-the-nexus-of-climate-change-human-mobility-and-human-rights/
The report has three objectives: 1) to analyse the existing state of knowledge in the fields of climate change, human mobility, and human rights (including more specific themes such as displacement, gender equality, and social inclusion), in the context of the Asia Pacific region; 2) to identify and assess the research gaps and emerging trends in the fields of climate change, human mobility, and human rights (including more specific themes such as displacement, gender equality, and social inclusion), in the context of the Asia Pacific region; and 3) to identify the research outlook and possible avenues for research in the field of climate change, human mobility, and human rights (including on more specific themes such as displacement, gender equality, and social inclusion), in the context of the Asia Pacific region.
Adapting to Climate-Related Human Mobility into Europe: Between the Protection Agenda and the Deterrence Paradigm, or Beyond? https://brill.com/view/journals/emil/25/1/article-p54_3.xml
In 2015, following a series of sub-regional consultations, 109 states endorsed an Agenda for the Protection of Cross-Border Displaced Persons in the Context of Disasters and Climate Change. Although active in supporting the consultative process and notwithstanding their endorsement of this ‘Protection Agenda’, the European Union and its Member States promote ‘effective practices’ in the global South without committing to the same course of action at home. Recognizing that the Protection Agenda is difficult to reconcile with contemporary migration politics in the global North, this article argues that an approach that builds on the European Climate Law commitment to pursue climate change adaptation ‘guided by the best available and most recent scientific evidence’ provides a starting point for addressing some important aspects of human mobility in the context of disasters and climate change, and provides a context for discussing the kind of transformational adaptation called for by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Gendered dimensions of migration in relation to climate change https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17565529.2020.1772708
Here, we seek to develop an analytical lens to the nexus between gender, migration and climate change in producing, reproducing and sustaining at risk conditions and vulnerabilities. When gender and mobility are conceptualized as a process, and climate change as a risk modifier, the nexus between them can be better interrogated. Starting by using gender as an organizing principle that structures and stratifies relations entails viewing gender not as a category that distinguishes males and females but as a discursive process of social construction that (re)produces subjectivities and inequalities. Gender is a dynamic process that shapes and (re)produces vulnerabilities and consequently shapes mediation of climate impacts and migration and is also shaped by symbolic processes that go beyond households and communities.
Migration/Refugee Law in Yearbook of International Disaster Law https://brill.com/view/journals/yido/yido-overview.xml
Each year the Yearbook of International Disaster Law contains a chapter focusing on key international and regional developments at the intersection of climate- and disaster-related human mobility and international law.
Disaster-related displacement into Europe: Judicial practice in Austria and Sweden https://rwi.lu.se/publications/disaster-related-displacement-into-europe-judicial-practice-in-austria-and-sweden/
This report synthesizes insights from research on judicial decisions relating to claims to enter and remain in Austria and Sweden in the context of disasters and climate change. It draws three overarching conclusions of relevance for the European region:
- People seek to enter and/or remain in European countries as a consequence of environmental pressures, including disasters and climate change.
- European countries do not have a harmonised approach to determining claims for international protection in the context of disasters and climate change.
- Scope for addressing cross-border disaster- and climate-related displacement under humanitarian or managed migration categories exists but is an area requiring further research.
Nordic Norms, Natural Disasters, and International Protection: Swedish and Finnish Practice in European Perspective https://brill.com/view/journals/nord/91/1/article-p101_6.xml?ebody=article%20details
This article examines Swedish, Finnish and, less closely, other Nordic countries’ contributions to the slow process of norm emergence in relation to cross-border displacement in the context of disasters and climate change. It focuses on Sweden and Finland’s early adoption, and subsequent judicial application, of a legal provision establishing a right to international protection for persons unable to return home in the context of an ‘environmental disaster’. As calls are growing for European countries to take more concerted action to address this phenomenon, we examine why this pioneering approach never became an ‘effective practice’, and how this experience can nonetheless inform the emergence of new norms at the European level.
Climate change, disasters and internal displacement in Asia and the Pacific: National Law and Policy Reports https://rwi.lu.se/publications/climate-change-disasters-and-internal-displacement-in-asia-and-the-pacific-national-law-and-policy-reports/
This is a series of ten reports that use a human rights-based approach to systematically evaluate law and policy relating to climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction.
Climate Change, Disasters and Internal Displacement in Asia and the Pacific: A Human Rights-Based Approach https://rwi.lu.se/publications/climate-change-disasters-and-internal-displacement-in-asia-and-the-pacific-a-human-rights-based-approach/
This book examines how states in eight countries across Asia and the Pacific address internal displacement in the context of disasters and climate change. The Asia and the Pacific region accounts for the majority of global disaster-related displacement, but the experience of the millions of individuals displaced differs according to gender, age, ethnicity, (dis)ability, caste, and so forth and is dependent on the legal, administrative, social, and economic structures and processes in place to support them. This book adopts a human rights-based approach, investigating the role of law and policy in preventing displacement, protecting people who are displaced, and engendering durable solutions across cases drawn from Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Nepal, Bangladesh, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands.
A Human Rights-based Approach to Internal Displacement in the Context of Disasters and Climate Change https://academic.oup.com/rsq/article-abstract/39/4/564/6075985
This article argues that integrating displacement considerations into (sub-) national legal and policy frameworks relating to disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM) and climate change adaptation (CCA) can play an important role in preventing and preparing for displacement, protecting people during evacuation and throughout displacement, and facilitating durable solutions in the context of disasters and climate change. The manner in which displacement considerations are integrated, including in particular the extent to which human rights-based international standards and guidelines are incorporated, combined with the level of human and financial resources devoted to this issue, can affect implementation at the sub-national level. Ultimately, however, addressing internal displacement in this context is a matter of sustainable development, with DRRM focusing mostly on symptoms, rather than underlying structural causes. The argument is developed with reference to recently completed collaborative research focusing on law, policy, and practice relating to internal displacement in the context of disasters and climate change in 10 countries across Asia and the Pacific.
Climate Change, Disasters, and the Refugee Convention https://rwi.lu.se/publications/climate-change-disasters-and-the-refugee-convention/
This book focuses on actual legal cases where individuals have sought recognition of refugee status in situations where they have been, or fear being, adversely affected by cyclones, droughts, floods, earthquakes and other natural hazards. It demonstrates that the legal predicament of people who seek refugee status in this connection has been inconsistently addressed by judicial bodies in leading refugee law jurisdictions, and identifies epistemological as well as doctrinal impediments to a clear and principled application of international refugee law. Arguing that refugee status determination cannot safely be performed without a clear understanding of the relationship between natural hazards and human agency, the book draws insights from disaster anthropology and political ecology that see discrimination as a contributory cause of people’s differential exposure and vulnerability to disaster-related harm. This theoretical framework, combined with insights derived from the review of existing doctrinal and judicial approaches, prompts a critical revision of the dominant human rights-based approach to the refugee definition.
Background Brief: Key International Standards and Guidelines Relating to Displacement in the Context of Disasters and Climate Change https://rwi.lu.se/publications/background-brief-key-international-standards-and-guidelines-relating-to-displacement-in-the-context-of-disasters-and-climate-change/
This Background Brief sets out key international standards and guidelines relating to displacement in the context of disasters and climate change. Recognising that the volume of even those standards and guidelines that are directly relevant to disaster displacement runs into hundreds of pages, it was considered that a background brief that condenses key principles and standards relating to all ‘phases’ of disaster displacement would be of use to actors lacking in-depth knowledge of the subject.
Blogposts and popular press
- Matthew Scott, ‘The Right to Adequate Housing in the Context of Urban Disaster Displacement in Sierra Leone, Kenya and Uganda’ Raoul Wallenberg Institute, 24 March 2022
- Matthew Scott, ‘Examining Governance Systems and Structures Relevant to Urban Disaster Displacement in Sierra Leone, Kenya and Uganda’ Raoul Wallenberg Institute, 2 March 2022
- Matthew Scott, ‘Kickstarting Work on Addressing Climate-Related Displacement at the Local Government Level’ Raoul Wallenberg Institute, 1 November 2022
- Matthew Scott, ‘How the New IPCC Report Addresses Migration and Human Rights’ Raoul Wallenberg Institute, 8 March 2022
- Matthew Scott and Carl Söderbergh, ‘What are the Implications of the Climate Emergency for Externalization?’ Collaborative Network on Refugee Externalization Policies (CONREP) 1 March 2021
- Matthew Scott, ‘Cambio Climático, Desastres y la Convención sobre el Estatuto de los Refugiados’, Migraciones Climaticos, 21 September 2020
- Matthew Scott, ‘COVID-19: Human Rights-Based Reflections on Displacement and Disease’ Raoul Wallenberg Institute 12 May 2020