Kenule Beeson Tsaro-Wiwa, widely known as Ken Saro-Wiwa, was a prominent human rights activist who dedicated his life to fighting for the rights of the Ogoni people and environmental protection in Nigeria’s Niger-Delta region. His tragic execution by the Abacha military regime in November 1995 not only marked a pivotal moment in the global business and human rights agenda but also highlighted the role of multinational corporations, particularly Royal Dutch Shell, in the Ogoni struggle. This month’s human rights profile blog post reflects on whether businesses can effectively advocate for human rights and sheds light on Ken Saro-Wiwa’s legacy as an inspiration for activists worldwide.
Ken was born on November 10, 1941, he dedicated his life to fighting against environmental degradation and for the survival of the Ogoni people. The Ogoni land, rich in oil resources, had been exploited by multinational oil companies, leading to devastating consequences for the local communities. Saro-Wiwa led a peaceful movement known as the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP) to address these issues and advocate for human rights.
The Role of Royal Dutch Shell
The struggle of the Ogoni people also put them at odds with Royal Dutch Shell, one of the major oil companies operating in the Niger-Delta region. Despite Shell’s claim to ethical business principles since 1976, many felt that the company had failed to use its influence effectively to save the Ogoni Nine, including Saro-Wiwa. Even Sir Geoffrey Chandler, who authored Shell’s ethical business principles, became one of the company’s harshest critics while chairing Amnesty International’s first Business Group during the 1990s.
In May 1994, Saro-Wiwa was abducted from his home and unjustly imprisoned by the Nigerian government, which was closely aligned with the interests of multinational corporations. He was falsely charged with the murder of four Ogoni leaders and subjected to a fraudulent trial by a military tribunal. Despite worldwide condemnation and appeals for clemency, Saro-Wiwa and his eight co-defendants were executed on November 10, 1995. Their only crime was demanding environmental justice and fair compensation for the devastation caused by oil extraction in Ogoni territories.
Legacy and Ongoing Struggles
Ken Saro-Wiwa’s tragic death became a catalyst for raising awareness about human rights abuses and environmental degradation caused by multinational corporations. His son, Ken Wiwa, and younger brother, Owens Wiwa, continue to advocate for the Ogoni cause from exile. Despite the death of Nigerian dictator General Sani Abacha in 1998, the Ogoni region remains heavily militarized, and the government has yet to agree to an independent environmental assessment of Shell’s pollution in the Niger Delta.
The execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa and the Ogoni Nine symbolizes the intersection of business interests and human rights. While some corporations have developed ethical principles, the effectiveness of their advocacy remains questionable, as demonstrated by the case of Royal Dutch Shell and its response to the Ogoni struggle. Saro-Wiwa’s legacy continues to inspire activists worldwide, reminding us of the ongoing fight for human rights and environmental justice in the face of corporate power. It is a reminder of the importance of holding businesses accountable for their actions and their responsibility to uphold ethical principles in all aspects of their operations.